5分钟了解MySQL5.7union all用法的黑科技

MySQL · suifu · 于 10个月前发布 · 666 次阅读
union all在MySQL5.6下的表现

Part1:MySQL5.6.25

[root@HE1 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 2
Server version: 5.6.25-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)
Copyright (c) 2000, 2015, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql> select version();
+------------+
| version()  |
+------------+
| 5.6.25-log |
+------------+
1 row in set (0.26 sec)
   
mysql> explain (select id from helei order by id) union all (select id from t where id=0 order by id);
+----+--------------+------------+-------+---------------+--------+---------+------+------+-----------------+
| id | select_type  | table      | type  | possible_keys | key    | key_len | ref  | rows | Extra           |
+----+--------------+------------+-------+---------------+--------+---------+------+------+-----------------+
|  1 | PRIMARY      | helei      | index | NULL          | idx_c1 | 4       | NULL | 5219 | Using index     |
|  2 | UNION        | t          | ALL   | NULL          | NULL   | NULL    | NULL |    1 | Using where     |
| NULL | UNION RESULT | <union1,2> | ALL   | NULL          | NULL   | NULL    | NULL | NULL | Using temporary |
+----+--------------+------------+-------+---------------+--------+---------+------+------+-----------------+
3 rows in set (0.00 sec)

从执行计划来看,是把helei表的查询结果和t表的查询结果合并在了一张临时表里,然后输出给客户端。

union all在MySQL5.7/MariaDB10.1下的表现

Part1:MySQL5.7.15

[root@HE1 ~]# mysql -uroot -p
Enter password: 
Welcome to the MySQL monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MySQL connection id is 8
Server version: 5.7.15-log MySQL Community Server (GPL)
Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle and/or its affiliates. All rights reserved.
Oracle is a registered trademark of Oracle Corporation and/or its
affiliates. Other names may be trademarks of their respective
owners.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
mysql> select version();
+------------+
| version()  |
+------------+
| 5.7.15-log |
+------------+
1 row in set (0.00 sec)、
mysql> explain (select id from helei order by id) union all (select id from t where id=0 order by id);
+----+-------------+-------+------------+-------+---------------+--------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
| id | select_type | table | partitions | type  | possible_keys | key    | key_len | ref  | rows | filtered | Extra       |
+----+-------------+-------+------------+-------+---------------+--------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
|  1 | PRIMARY     | helei | NULL       | index | NULL          | idx_c1 | 4       | NULL | 5212 |   100.00 | Using index |
|  2 | UNION       | t     | NULL       | ALL   | NULL          | NULL   | NULL    | NULL |    1 |   100.00 | Using where |
+----+-------------+-------+------------+-------+---------------+--------+---------+------+------+----------+-------------+
2 rows in set, 1 warning (0.00 sec)




Part2:MariaDB10.1.16

[root@HE3 ~]# /usr/local/mariadb/bin/mysql -uroot -S /tmp/mariadb.sock 
Welcome to the MariaDB monitor.  Commands end with ; or \g.
Your MariaDB connection id is 7
Server version: 10.1.16-MariaDB MariaDB Server
Copyright (c) 2000, 2016, Oracle, MariaDB Corporation Ab and others.
Type 'help;' or '\h' for help. Type '\c' to clear the current input statement.
MariaDB [(none)]>
MariaDB [helei]> explain (select id from helei order by id) union all (select id from t where id=0 order by id);
+------+-------------+-------+-------+---------------+--------+---------+------+------+-------------+
| id   | select_type | table | type  | possible_keys | key    | key_len | ref  | rows | Extra       |
+------+-------------+-------+-------+---------------+--------+---------+------+------+-------------+
|    1 | PRIMARY     | helei | index | NULL          | idx_c1 | 4       | NULL | 5198 | Using index |
|    2 | UNION       | t     | ALL   | NULL          | NULL   | NULL    | NULL |    1 | Using where |
+------+-------------+-------+-------+---------------+--------+---------+------+------+-------------+
2 rows in set (0.00 sec)

从执行结果看,无论是MySQL5.7还是MariaDB10.1,都没有创建临时表,按照顺序,helei表的查询结果首先输出到客户端,然后t表的查询结果再输出到客户端。

本文中的优化只针对union all,对union和在最外层使用order by无效。


——总结——
在MySQL5.7/MariaDB10.1中,union all不再创建临时表,这样在联合查询时会减少I/O开销,在MySQL5.5/5.6中则不具备这一特性。由于笔者的水平有限,编写时间也很仓促,文中难免会出现一些错误或者不准确的地方,不妥之处恳请读者批评指正。



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